Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using leaf extract from Calluna vulgaris. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed through the emergence of a surface plasmon resonance band in ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The characterization conducted using various microscopic techniques revealed that the nanoparticles mostly ranged in size from approximately 20 to 70 nm. Analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confirmed the chemical, crystalline structure, and presence of silver, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited notable stability with an average zeta potential of -23.1 ± 0.6 mV. Evaluation of their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli demonstrated significant efficacy with diameters of inhibition zones measuring 10.23 ± 0.54 mm and 15.38 ± 0.32 mm, respectively. Additionally, the nanoparticles displayed a remarkable inhibition of approximately 88% against E. coli biofilm formation at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. They also exhibited unique photocatalytic performances. This research contributes to the literature in this field by producing new silver nanoparticles with cost-effectiveness, stability, antibacterial, antioxidant, antibiofilm, and photocatalytic properties, while using a previously untapped plant extract for this purpose.

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