Co-firing of biomass in fossil fuel-fired power plants is a mature technology option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Up to 10 % of fossil fuel energy input can be displaced by biomass without the need for major retrofits. Co-firing may be done directly or indirectly. However, direct co-firing has the disadvantage of being less flexible with the use of different types of biomass. Indirect co-firing, on the other hand, overcomes this limitation by using a gasifier which converts the biomass into syngas and biochar. The syngas can then be used for co-firing, while biochar can be applied to soil as a form of carbon sequestration. This process stores the carbon initially fixed by biomass through photosynthesis in the soil, and results in the net transfer of part of the carbon in biomass from the atmosphere to the soil. Biochar thus acts as a negative emissions technology with potential for scale-up in the near future. The utilization of biomass for co-firing in a fleet of thermal power plants can be optimized as a carbon management network, subject to biomass availability and the presence of suitable biochar sinks. In this work, a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed to minimize net carbon emissions in such a system, taking into account parametric uncertainties in the storage capacities of the biochar sinks. It is assumed that there is the option to use direct, indirect or no co-firing in each power plant in the system. The model is illustrated using a case study.

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