The degeneration of forest landscapes is mainly caused by human impact on the natural environment, which is posing a great threat to biodiversity. We studied the relationship between forest landscapes and birds in mountain regions of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. In Jinuo ethnic region, forest landscape is degenerating, and bird diversity is reducing as a result of human influence. However, in Hani ethnic region of Mengsong area, a comparative study area, there are also traditional practices of agriculture and forestry. The traditional practices are dynamically adaptive to local geographic environment and social economic conditions. A great deal of biodiversity exists in the place where people have lived for many generations and use the resources of environment in a sustainable manner. Considering bird diversity and forest landscape of mountainous area, both economic and ecological benefits should be taken into account, which relate to land use and landscape protection. Biodiversity conservation, resource management and policy making should pay much attention to the best interconnection of land use and landscapes protection.

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