Global Environmental Change | VOL. 26
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Food choices, health and environment: Effects of cutting Europe's meat and dairy intake

Publication Date May 1, 2014

Abstract

Western diets are characterised by a high intake of meat, dairy products and eggs, causing an intake of saturated fat and red meat in quantities that exceed dietary recommendations. The associated livestock production requires large areas of land and lead to high nitrogen and greenhouse gas emission levels. Although several studies have examined the potential impact of dietary changes on greenhouse gas emissions and land use, those on health, the agricultural system and other environmental aspects (such as nitrogen emissions) have only been studied to a limited extent. By using biophysical models and methods, we examined the large-scale consequences in the European Union of replacing 25–50% of animal-derived foods with plant-based foods on a dietary energy basis, assuming corresponding changes in production. We tested the effects of these alternative diets and found that halving the consumption of meat, dairy products and eggs in the European Union would achieve a 40% reduction in nitrogen emissions, 25–40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and 23% per capita less use of cropland for food production. In addition, the dietary changes would also lower health risks. The European Union would become a net exporter of cereals, while the use of soymeal would be reduced by 75%. The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the food system would increase from the current 18% to between 41% and 47%, depending on choices made regarding land use. As agriculture is the major source of nitrogen pollution, this is expected to result in a signif...

Concepts
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Nitrogen Emissions
Intake Of Saturated Fat
Impact Of Dietary Changes
Reduction In Nitrogen Emissions
High Intake Of Meat
Greenhouse Gas Emission Levels
Reduction In Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Food Production Patterns
Reduction In Cardiovascular Mortality
Nitrogen Use Efficiency

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