Changes in flora biodiversity are a dilemma facing managers in order to cope with challenges of extinction or endangering plant species as well as replacement by invasive species. Such problems can occur in the region as disruption of ecosystem balance. The first step of proper management of a watershed is obtaining accurate information about plant communities and their dominance and biodiversity status. Such information will help decision makers to adopt an appropriate management approach. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to detect various types of plant species in Zanjanrood Watershed. For this porous, quadrate and transect methods were applied to determine available plant species in the region. Afterwards, Shannon and Simpson’s Reciprocal indices were used to specify the biodiversity status of the identified communities. The calculation results revealed 3.19 and 5.98 for Shannon and Simpson’s Reciprocal indices, respectively. As the results suggested, there has been a downward trend in biodiversity status over the last 20 years. Such a deteriorating condition has been accelerated rise in recent years so that the non-palatable species are rapidly replaced by the palatable ones due to uncontrolled overgrazing of livestock. If management is not based on principles of sustainability in the region, the watershed will experience an extreme poverty of land cover. The findings would be so helpful to achieve an appropriate strategy in order to conserve the biodiversity in a sustainable manner.

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