Hydrofoil-shaped limbs (flipper-hydrofoils) have evolved independently several times in secondarily marine tetrapods and generally fall into two functional categories: (1) those that produce the majority of thrust during locomotion (propulsive flipper-hydrofoils); (2) those used primarily to steer and resist destabilizing movements such as yaw, pitch, and roll (controller flipper-hydrofoils). The morphological differences between these two types have been poorly understood. Theoretical and experimental studies on engineered hydrofoils suggest that flapping hydrofoils with a flexible trailing edge are more efficient at producing thrust whereas hydrofoils used in steering and stabilization benefit from a more rigid one. To investigate whether the trailing edge is generally more flexible in propulsive flipper-hydrofoils, we compared the bone distribution along the chord in both flipper types. The propulsive flipper-hydrofoil group consists of the forelimbs of Chelonioidea, Spheniscidae, and Otariidae. The controller flipper-hydrofoil group consists of the forelimbs of Cetacea. We quantified bone distribution from radiographs of species representing more than 50% of all extant genera for each clade. Our results show that the proportion of bone in both groups is similar along the leading edge (0-40% of the chord) but is significantly less along the trailing edge for propulsive flipper-hydrofoils (40-80% of the chord). Both flipper-hydrofoil types have little to no bony tissue along the very edge of the trailing edge (80-100% of t...
Flexible Trailing Edge Marine Tetrapods Trailing Edge Functional Categories Morphological Differences Prior Studies Extinct Taxa Roll Controller Theoretical Studies Experimental Studies
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Round-ups are the summaries of handpicked papers around trending topics published every week. These would enable you to scan through a collection of papers and decide if the paper is relevant to you before actually investing time into reading it.
Climate change Research Articles published between Jan 23, 2023 to Jan 29, 2023
Jan 30, 2023
Articles Included: 3
Climate change adaptation has shifted from a single-dimension to an integrative approach that aligns with vulnerability and resilience concepts. Adapt...Read More
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