Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop in China and it is also used in food and health products. In August of 2019, a blight sesame fruit was observed in a field of Liaoyang city, Liaoning province of China. Initial disease symptoms consisted of brown or dark brown spots on fruit. With time, lesions coalesced and the whole fruit turned dark brown or black. Most of the diseased fruit had thin and small, deformed, necrotic, hardened cracked epidermal lesions. Lesions were also produced on stem and petioles leading to leaf abscission. The disease results in premature fruit death, and in turn, considerable yield losses. To determine the causal agent, symptomatic fruit with developing lesions were collected, and surface sterilized in 2% NaClO for 3 min, rinsed three times in distilled water, and plated onto PDA medium. After incubation at 25°C for 5 days, a dark olivaceous fungus with abundant, branched, brown to black, and septate hyphae was consistently isolated. Twenty single spores were separated with an inoculation needle under stereomicroscope. The conidia were in chains, brown, obclavate, ovoid or ellipsoid, with 1-6 transverse septa and 0-4 longitudinal or oblique septa 12.5 to 45 × 6.5 to 14.5 μm in size. Conidiophores were septate, light brown to olive brown, measuring 22-60 μm × 2-4 μm. The morphological characteristics of the 20 isolates all matched the description of Alternaria alternata (Simmons, 2007). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA of 15 isolates was amplified using primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990) and EF1-728F/EF1-986R (Carbone et al. 1999) and sequenced. Identical sequences were obtained and the sequence of the isolate ZMHG12 was submitted to GenBank (Accession no. MW418181 and MW700316). BLAST analysis of the sequences of the isolates of ZMHG12 showed 100% to A. alternata (KP739875 and LC132712). In pathogenicity tests, a conidial suspension (2.5 × 105 conidia per ml) was prepared from 7 days-old cultures of isolate ZMHG12 grown on PDA at 25°C. Fruit of 10 two-month-old potted sesame plants (Variety "Liaozhi 8") were sprayed with the conidia suspension until runoff. Another 10 plants sprayed with distilled water to served as non-inoculated controls. All plants were maintained for 48 h in a humid chamber with a temperature of 25°C to 26°C, and then moved to a greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation, all fruit of inoculated plants exhibited symptoms similar to those observed in the field and non-inoculated control plants remained symptomless. The experiment was repeated twice with similar results. A. alternata has been reported as a pathogen caused leaf blight disease of sesame in Pakistan (Nayyar et al. 2017). To our knowledge, this is the first report of A.alternata causing fruit blight of sesame in China. To date, we have observed the disease on sesames in fields of Fuxin, Chaoyang and Tieling city in Liaoning Province, and Tongliao city in Inner Mongolia of China, and it has become an important disease in sesame production of China. References : Simmons E. G. 2007. Alternaria: An identification manual. CBS Fungal Biodiversity Center, Utrecht, Netherlands. White T. J., et al. 1990. Page 315 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego. Carbone I., et al. 1999. Mycologia, 91: 553-556. Nayyar, B. G., et al. 2017. Plant Pathology Journal, 33 (6): 543-553.

Full Text
Published version (Free)

Talk to us

Join us for a 30 min session where you can share your feedback and ask us any queries you have

Schedule a call