Plant Disease | VOL. 105
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First Report of <i>Colletotrichum fructicola</i>, <i>C. perseae</i>, and <i>C. siamense</i> Causing Anthracnose Disease of Avocado (<i>Persea americana</i>) in New Zealand

Publication Date May 1, 2021

Abstract

In January and March 2019, an inspection of 11 commercial ‘Hass’ avocado orchards in mid-North and Tauranga (New Zealand) was conducted by NZ Avocado Growers Association Inc. (NZAGA) and the samples were sent to Plant Diagnostics Limited for investigation of a newly observed fruit staining symptom termed “tannin stain”. Fruit symptoms consisted of areas of minute small spots which coalesced into areas of tear staining associated with water movement over the fruit’s surface (Supplementary Fig. 1). Up to seven trees per orchard were sampled targeting symptomatic fruit with the aim of determining the cause of the problem. Fruit was surface disinfected for 4 minutes in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and sections from lesions were plated on agar medium (prune extract agar) to isolate any plant pathogens. The predominant fungi isolated, represented species in the Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. boninense species complexes. Since the morphological characters within these complexes overlap (see Supplementary Fig. 2 for examples), the isolates were differentiated by amplification and sequencing of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) gene and, where necessary, the calmodulin (CAL) gene and/or the Apn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer region (ApMat) locus (Weir et al., 2012; Rojas et al., 2010). The sequence analysis revealed eight Colletotrichum species comprising C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. cigarro, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, C. perseae, and C. siamense. This range included three species th...

Concepts
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Colletotrichum Species
Avocado Orchards
Sterile Water
Gloeosporioides Species Complex
Isolates In GenBank
Control Fruit
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase
Black Acervuli
Avocado Diseases
Intergenic Spacer Region

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