Abstract

Revealing the long-term development trajectory and peak scenarios of the urban residential building sector is crucial for formulating targeted emission reduction strategies and contributing to achieving the “Dual carbon” target. Given that, significant variables affecting carbon emissions from urban residential buildings (URBCE) at both macro and end-use building levels are identified in this study. Furthermore, an innovative dynamic simulation model is developed by integrating the Monte Carlo simulation model with the Kaya identity model, taking into account the uncertainties of the variables. Subsequently, the long-term evolution trajectories, potential emission peaks, and peak time of the URBCE close to 2060 in China's hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone are simulated. Results indicate that URBCE is expected to reach its peak of 272.43 Mt CO2 in 2040 under the baseline scenario. Through the dynamic simulation, the probable peak time of energy consumption in the HSCW zone is 2044 (±1.85), with a peak of 145.42 (±6.91) Mtce, and the possible peak time of carbon emissions is probably 2039 (±1.60), with a peak of 271.93 (±13.40) Mt CO2. According to dynamic sensitivity analysis, carbon emission factor, per capita residential space, and heating energy intensity can promote the peak size and timing. These findings lay a robust foundation for the formulation of regionally specific carbon reduction targets and initiatives.

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