Modern energy batteries are mainly used in pure electric vehicles. The stability of battery operation relies heavily on thermal management systems for which phase-change batteries have become an effective solution. In this study, we designed a battery thermal management system divided into two parts: a shaped phase-change material (PCM) module and a battery module. In the qualitative PCM module, polyethylene glycol was used to absorb heat, expanded graphite (EG) was used as the thermally conductive agent, and copper foam formed the support skeleton. The battery module comprised an 18650 lithium-ion battery with an enthalpy of 155 J/g. In our experiments, we applied PCMs to the battery modules and demonstrated the effectiveness of composite PCM (CPCM) in effectively lowering the temperature of both battery packs and minimizing the temperature discrepancies among individual batteries. At a gradually increasing discharge rate (1C/2C/3C), the battery’s Tmax could be lowered and the temperature could be de creased at various positions. It was evident that the battery temperature could be effectively preserved using CPCM. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future research on battery thermal management. Finally, the copper foam and EG contributed significantly to the prevention of leakage.

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