Reproduction is a key feature of all organisms, yet the way in which it is achieved varies greatly across the tree of life. One striking example of this variation is the stick insect genus Bacillus, in which five different reproductive modes have been described: sex, facultative and obligate parthenogenesis, and two highly unusual reproductive modes: hybridogenesis and androgenesis. Under hybridogenesis, the entire genome from the paternal species is eliminated, and replaced each generation by mating with the corresponding species. Under androgenesis, an egg is fertilized but the developing diploid offspring bear two paternal genomes, and no maternal genome, as a consequence of unknown mechanisms. Here, we re-evaluate previous descriptions of Bacillus lineages and the proposed F1 hybrid ancestries of the hybridogenetic and obligately parthenogenetic lineages (based on allozymes and karyotypes) from Sicily, where all these reproductive modes are found. We generate a chromosome-level genome assembly for a facultative parthenogenetic species (B. rossius) and combine extensive field sampling with RADseq and mtDNA data. We identify and genetically corroborate all previously described species and confirm the ancestry of hybrid lineages. All hybrid lineages have fully retained their F1 hybrid constitution throughout the genome, indicating that the elimination of the paternal genome in hybridogens is always complete and that obligate parthenogenesis in Bacillus hybrid species is not associated with an erosion of heterozygosity as known in other hybrid asexuals. Our results provide a stepping stone towards understanding the transitions between reproductive modes and the proximate mechanisms of genome elimination.

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