The hydrological cycle of the Amazon Basin is characterized by a multitude of interactions between the atmosphere and surface processes, involving several temporal and spatial scales. Evapotranspiration is a key variable in the water and energy balance, particularly in this watershed that is home to the world largest rainforest. This study analyzed evapotranspiration in the Amazon Basin using the concepts of Coupling (one way relationship between two variables), Memory (temporal permanence of a state or anomaly in the behavior of one variable) and Feedback (two way relationships between two variables), during a 62-year period (12/1959–11/2021). This study found that the seasonality of precipitation, mainly due to the South American Monsoon, determines when evapotranspiration is mainly driven by (or coupled with) net radiation at the surface or soil moisture. Moreover, in the regions where seasonality of precipitation is strong, the previous hydroclimatic conditions due to hydrological memory (reaching just over 90 days in shallow soils) influences the evapotranspiration during the relatively dry season. Regarding water feedback, this study found that the dependence of seasonal precipitation of the Amazon Basin from their hydrobiological processes (fraction of precipitation recycled by Amazonian evapotranspiration) increases with the distance from the Atlantic Ocean, mainly during the non-monsoonal circulation. This process is particularly remarkable in the Amazon-Andes transition zone. However, the spatial pattern and height of water recycled in this watershed is mainly determined by the dominant circulation pattern of atmospheric fluxes in each season.

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