Abstract

BackgroundCovariances among major anthropogenic greenhouse gases were studied during three cold-air pool episodes in the Pannonian Basin to better constrain their emission factors for Europe.ResultsOn the base of observed covariance between carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide atmospheric dry air mole fraction in a region of the Pannonian (Carpathian) Basin during three cold-air pool episodes in January–February 2017, emission factors relative to carbon dioxide were determined. For the determination of the emission of carbon dioxide, a simple boundary-layer budget model was compiled. The model gave 6.3 g m−2 day−1 carbon dioxide emission for the footprint area of the measurements on average for the period of the episodes. The 6.7–13.8 nmol μmol−1, 0.15–0.31 nmol μmol−1 and 15.0–25.8 nmol μmol−1 ratios for CH4:CO2, N2O:CO2 and CO:CO2, respectively, correspond to 15.3–31.7 mg m−2 day−1 methane, 0.9–2.0 mg m−2 day−1 nitrous oxide and 60.0–103.4 mg m−2 day−1 carbon monoxide emissions for the region. These values are somewhat higher than the officially reported bottom-up annual national averages for Hungary, which are explained by the winter conditions and intensive domestic heating.ConclusionsThe study indicated the high share of biomass burning in residential heating in rural environment that results in high carbon monoxide emission relative to that of carbon dioxide. It also indicated that the actual emission factor for nitrous oxide may exceed the range given in the guidelines for inventory compilation, which should be taken into account in reporting. It is shown that even a simple boundary-layer budget model might give realistic emission estimation under cool-air pool episodes.

Highlights

  • Covariances among major anthropogenic greenhouse gases were studied during three cold-air pool episodes in the Pannonian Basin to better constrain their emission factors for Europe

  • We take advantage of special meteorological situations formed in Central Europe to directly estimate emission factors for greenhouse gases

  • Based on atmospheric concentration measurements, the inverse atmospheric transport models can determine the spatial distribution of the intensity of emission, while the boundary-layer budget (BLB) methods can estimate the emission of a region [9, 10]

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Summary

Introduction

Covariances among major anthropogenic greenhouse gases were studied during three cold-air pool episodes in the Pannonian Basin to better constrain their emission factors for Europe. Any change in the atmospheric budgets of greenhouse gases (GHGs), in the radiative forcing of the atmosphere causes global climate change. The so-called “bottom-up” approach obtains regional, national or global emissions by multiplying statistical activity data with the appropriate emission factors determined empirically for typical sources, while the so-called “top-down” methods are based on atmospheric concentration measurements [4]. Based on atmospheric concentration measurements, the inverse atmospheric transport models can determine the spatial distribution of the intensity of emission (see e.g., [5,6,7,8]), while the boundary-layer budget (BLB) methods can estimate the emission of a region [9, 10]. The boundary-layer budget models can be applied from a single night to a several-days-long episode (see e.g., [11,12,13,14,15,16])

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