GlobalFiler is a new PCR amplification kit that includes 21 autosomal short tandem repeats and three sex-determining loci. In the present research, for the first time, the GlobalFiler kit was tested to analyze a sample of 500 unrelated individuals from 18 villages encompassing the entire area of Sardinia (Italy). We tested if the kit, which is a powerful tool in forensic studies, may also find application in the field of population genetics. In agreement with data from the literature on forensic parameters values, marker SE33 showed the highest degree of polymorphism, whereas TPOX was the least informative locus. Seventeen out of twenty-one autosomal markers included in the kit resulted highly polymorphic, and therefore Globalfiler turned out to be highly useful for forensic analysis in the Sardinian population. Moreover, our data suggest developing different STR databases in different populations, like Sardinians, to increase the statistical power of autosomal STR profiling. On the other hand, due to the presence of some very highly polymorphic markers, the efficiency of Globalfiler in detecting geographical variability is affected. Indeed, the differentiation previously observed between the Sardinian and Italian populations appeared greatly reduced and even the presence of genetic isolates, previously recorded when uniparental markers was not revealed.

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