Abstract

The epithelium is an integral part of barrier tissues, and plays a critical role in the initiation of the innate immune responses. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-36α has been previously reported to be strongly expressed during oral mucosal wound healing, but regulation of IL-36α expression and secretion in the oral mucosa are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine the types of stimuli that lead to expression and secretion of IL-36α in epithelial cells. Maxillary tissues from C57BL/6J mice during wound healing were utilized to identify endogenous expression of IL-36α, β, and γ in oral epithelial tissue. Immortalized HaCaT cells and primary normal human oral keratinocytes were subjected to Escherichia coli derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Poly(I:C), heat killed Candida albicans (HKCa), and mechanical damage. IL-36α and IL-1β levels in supernatant were assessed by sandwich ELISA, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-36 family genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in HaCaT cells. Migration ability of keratinocytes was assessed with or without functional IL-36 signaling. IL-36α but not IL-36β or γ levels in the oral epithelium were elevated during wound healing. Treatment of epithelial cells with LPS, Poly(I:C), HKCa and mechanical damage revealed little to no soluble IL-36α in the media supernatant. However, sonication of the supernatant to disrupt the membranes of extracellular vesicles revealed a dose-dependent increase in IL-36α for each of the tested conditions. IL-1 superfamily genes were upregulated following mechanical damage in keratinocytes. Abrogation of IL-36 signaling led to severe inhibition of migration. Our data show for the first time that IL-36α is released primarily in extracellular vesicles by oral keratinocytes. Additionally, we show that IL-36α – but not IL-36β or γ – is upregulated in keratinocytes following mechanical damage, and that IL-36 signaling is important for keratinocyte migration.

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