To describe the epidemiology of eye diseases among children with disability in rural Bangladesh. We established a population-based cohort of children with disability using the key informant method. Children younger than 18 years with disability (i.e. physical, visual, hearing, speech, epilepsy) were included. We used detailed ophthalmological assessments following World Health Organization (WHO) protocols by a multidisciplinary team including an ophthalmologist, optometrist, physician, and physiotherapist. Visual impairment, blindness, and severe visual impairment (SVI) were defined by following WHO categories. Between October 2017 and February 2018, 1274 children were assessed (43.6% female; median [interquartile range] age 9y 10mo [6y -13y 7mo]). Overall, 6.5% (n=83) had blindness/SVI, and 5.6% (n=71) had visual impairment. In the group with blindness/SVI, 47% (n=39) had cortical blindness; of those, 79.5% (n=31) had cerebral palsy (CP). The other main anatomical sites of abnormalities in this group included lens (13.3%, n=11), cornea (10.8%, n=9), and optic nerve (9.6%, n=8). In the group with visual impairment, 90.1% (n=64) had refractive error. Overall, 83.1% (n=69) and 78.8% (n=56) of those with blindness/SVI and visual impairment had avoidable causes. Most children with blindness/SVI and visual impairment lacked access to education. The burden of blindness/SVI/visual impairment is high among children with disability in rural Bangladesh, mostly due to avoidable causes. Overrepresentation of CP and cortical blindness in the group with blindness/SVI and refractive error in the group with visual impairment highlights the need for integration of ophthalmology assessment, eye care, and refraction services in comprehensive health care for children with disability including CP in rural Bangladesh.

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