This chapter deals with population movements which are induced by environmental forces – the latter are broadly defined. The passing of the bipolar world gave rise to increasing concern by the international community for non-military sources of instability – environmental degradation, rapid population growth, growing unand underemployment and poverty, ethnic tensions, human rights violations, transnational terrorism and large-scale international migration. The fear of mass migration of environmental refugees – people driven from their homes as a result of ecological destruction – has become a major issue in the international community. The mutual dependence of the peoples of the world on a single common planetary biosphere means that the environmental decline of one country or region is a problem for the entire community of nations (Swain, 1939). The New World Order encourages an international solution to other existing global problems hitherto swept under the carpet. The reckless abuse of the human environment is one of such problems (Ezeonu and Ezeonu, 2000: 4148). Though major research attention has been attributed to the South-North migration and East/West migration, most of the movements have been from rural areas to urban areas inside the developing countries or from one developing country to another (Swain, 1993). The world’s interest in environmentally induced migration is also reinforced by the assumed “security threats” attributed to such migrations. Movements of persons across borders affect security in international relations at three levels: The national security agendas of receiving and transit countries which perceive massive international population movement as a threat to their economic well-being, social order, cultural and religious values and political stability Relations between states, as movements tend to create tensions and

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