This paper evaluates the environmental impacts and economic aspects of saffron and canola production systems using energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission indices; economic indicators; pesticide risk (field environmental impact—FEIQ); tillage impact (TI); fertilizer, labour, land and water use efficiency, and the eco-efficiency index. Data used in this study were obtained from all growers of saffron and canola (35 for saffron and 60 for canola) in the Maragheh—Bonab plain using a face to face survey. The results showed that canola production was more energy-intensive than saffron. The global warming potential (GWP) and carbon footprint (CF) obtained for canola was higher than saffron. Moreover, FEIQ and TI for canola were higher than saffron. Although canola recorded more economic labour productivity, the saffron was superior to canola in terms of energy and economic indices, environmental aspects (GHG emission, TI, FEIQ), and water, land and nutrients use efficiency.

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