Food processing is a major thriving industry globally and provides livelihood to millions of workers. Food processing is an energy intensive process and often has an impact on the environment which remains undiagnosed and hence not quantified. Food processing industry comprises the organized as well as unorganized sector with varying levels of energy requirement and therefore the carbon foot prints also significantly vary. Higher energy use is often related to higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emission which is responsible for global warming and climate change. Carbon footprint (CFP) of food industry is an estimate of the energy use and GHG emissions caused due to the processing and delivery of food items to the consumer and also disposal of packaging. Recently there is a growing interest in estimating the carbon footprint of food industries to know how improved technologies can be used to make food processing less energy and carbon intensive. In this book chapter we would like to provide an overview of energy use and carbon footprint of different types of food industries. Quantification of CFP is generally done using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in which GHG emissions are measured from the very beginning of the production process to its final use and disposal. GHG emission from a food industry will include both direct emissions as well as indirect emissions. The CFP of different sectors like fruit and beverage industry, sugar production, dairy sector, fisheries, meat and poultry supply chains are presented. Apart from this, research gaps and possible steps to minimize the carbon footprint will be mentioned. Assessing the CFP of food industries can help in identifying the GHG sources and can be useful in developing alternative technologies which are more energy efficient and reduces GHG emission. Further, change in dietary pattern also contributes immensely to reduce the environmental impact of food consumption.

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