The growth in population and economic activities has direct implications on the deterioration of the natural capital, especially when referring to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. However, improvement is possible by empowering sustainable consumption and production patterns. Through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the United Nations call for a mix of economic development, environmental sustainability, and social inclusion. The agenda also provides the instruments needed to track progress, as each Sustainable Development Goal has a set of indicators meant to assess various dimensions of sustainability. Energy productivity is only one of many, but still special because it reflects sustainable consumption behaviors and production patterns. The 2030 Climate Target Plan elaborated by the European Commission consolidates and brings its contribution to the aims of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by adding weight to the importance of the greenhouse gas emissions target. The objective of this research was to study the relationship between energy productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, biowaste recycling and nominal GDP in the EU in order to highlight the key of a smooth transition towards sustainable consumption behaviors and production patterns. The results show that recycling, greening the economy and energy productivity are the vectors of this transition.


  • The future of consumption can no longer be approached without considering sustainability

  • The main objective of this research was to quantify the impact of biowaste recycling, greenhouse gas emissions and nominal GDP on energy productivity in the EU, as this impact indicates the convergence or divergence among the EU members in meeting the targets of the European Green Deal, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the 2030 Climate Target Plan

  • The authors brought empirical evidence which confirm that the mix of income (GDP), human capital, energy productivity, energy prices and eco-innovation contributes to empowering sustainable consumption behaviors

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The future of consumption can no longer be approached without considering sustainability. Consumption behaviors have many implications on achieving the goals and targets of sustainable development. In the EU, sustainable development is the main orientation of development. Decision-makers prioritize the sustainability factor when designing policies, as this contributes to the generation of better conditions for the EU citizens. The economic, social, and environmental dimensions need to be approached simultaneously when designing policies, because they all influence the future of sustainable development. Decision-makers all over the world should promote renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means for complying with the aims and goals of sustainable development

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