This study assesses the energy-economic-environmental aspects of cucumber production in the face of environmental issues and resource scarcity, which threaten global food security and demand sustainable agriculture solutions. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed for inputs from planting to harvesting. The results indicated that diesel fuel (37.41%) and nitrate fertilizer (37.22%) constitute the primary inputs. The energy ratio, energy efficiency and net energy gain were 0.43, 0.54 kgMJ−1 and -30,153.31 MJha−1, respectively. Input optimization by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) reduced the carbon footprint from 178.433 to 168.900 kg CO2 per ton, the abiotic depletion from 1228.291 to 964.305 MJ and the acidification from 0.838 to 0.749 kg SO2 eq. Also, the results of DEA showed that 52.5% and 35% of the units were fully efficient under Variable Return to Scale (VRS) and Constant Return to Scale (CRS) models, respectively, while the others were inefficient to varying degrees. The average of technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies were 92.88%, 97.64%, and 95.07%, respectively. The results of economic evaluation showed that production cost is 6058.84 $ha−1 with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.71. Based on the primary results, it is suggested to use precision agriculture techniques and the exploration of alternative energy sources, such as biofuel for machinery. Additionally, using slow-release fertilizers or organic substitutes can decrease nitrogen fertilizer dependency while maintaining crop yields and improve the sustainability in this production.

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