The effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in preventing severe pneumonia in Asian children has been questioned, and many large Asian countries yet to introduce Hib conjugate vaccine in immunization programs. The primary objective of this study was to assess Hib conjugate vaccine effectiveness (VE) on radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children born after introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine in Pakistan. A matched case-control study enrolled cases of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in several hospitals serving low-income populations during 2009-2011. Cases were matched by age and season with 3hospital and 5 neighborhood controls. Pneumonia was diagnosed using standardized World Health Organization criteria for chest radiograph interpretation. Matched OR were estimated for VE. A total of 1027 children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia were enrolled; 975 cases, 2925hospitalcontrols, and 4875 neighborhood controls were analyzed. The coverage for 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib conjugate vaccine was 13.7%, 18%, and 22.7% in cases, hospital controls and neighborhood controls, respectively. Estimated Hib VE for radiologically-confirmed pneumonia was 62%with 3 doses of vaccine using hospital controls and 70% using neighborhood controls. Hib conjugate vaccine prevented a significant fraction of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Maximizing impact on child survival needs improved immunization coverage.

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