This study aimed to investigate the rate of passive torque variations of human knee joint in the different velocities of knee flexion and extension movements. Ten healthy men were invited to participate in the tests. All passive torque tests were performed for the knee joint extension and flexion on the sagittal plane in three different angular velocities of 15, 45, and 120°/s; in 5 consecutive cycles; and within 0° to 100° range of motion. The electrical activity of knee joint extensor and flexor muscles was recorded until there was no muscle activity signal. A Three-element Solid Model (SLS) was used to obtain the viscose and elastic coefficients. As the velocity increases, the stretch rate in velocity-independent tissues increases, and the stretch rate in velocity-dependent tissues decreases. By increasing the velocity, the resistance of velocity-dependent parts increases, and the velocity-independent parts are not affected by velocity. Since the first torque that resists the joint movement is passive torque, the elastic and viscous torques should be simultaneously used. It is better to perform the movement at a low velocity so that less energy is lost. The viscoelastic resistance of tissues diminishes. Graphical abstract.

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