Eccentric compression is a critical behavior observed in arches and columns, particularly in structures constructed with ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Compared to normal concrete structures, those made with UHPC exhibit distinct behaviors that need to be clearly investigated. This study comprehensively investigates UHPC columns under eccentric compression load through experimental study and theoretical analysis. Various experimental parameters, including slenderness ratio, eccentricity distance, fiber content, and stirrup ratio, were examined across 26 UHPC columns. Failure modes were evaluated using digital image correlation (DIC) methods. The load-displacement responses indicated that slender columns subjected to significant eccentricity exhibited load decreases during yielding stages, whereas short columns experienced load increases. This discrepancy in yielding stages was attributed to P-delta effects. In addition, theoretical models were developed to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of columns experiencing compression-controlled and tension-controlled failures, considering the P-delta effect caused by the different slenderness ratios. The moment magnifying coefficients for UHPC were calibrated based on theoretical analyses of the limit curvature of eccentric compression members. The proposed theoretical models agreed well with the experimental results, with an average ratio of 1.02. The second-order effect for the case of UHPC short column with a slenderness ratio of 5 can be ignored as per Eurocode 2, which is less than 10 % of the corresponding first-order effect.

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