In this century, a disease caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has resulted in significant loss in rice production in Asia. Aside from infecting rice plants, SRBSDV is transmitted by white-backed planthopper (WBPH) in a persistent propagative manner. Recent studies showed that SRBSDV can dynamically modulate the host cells throughout the infection progress. However, the expression dynamics of the SRBSDV genes during infection remain unclear. Here we established an absolute real-time quantitative PCR method to assess the dynamic of the SRBSDV genes expression in rice plants and planthoppers. Apart from displaying the expression levels of viral genes, we discovered that the expression level of viral genes in insects significantly surpasses that in plant cells. In addition, we identified two nonstructural proteins with unknown functions that exhibit the highest expression levels in plant and insect cells, respectively, which provide possible targets for restraining the disease outbreaks.

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