In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered. Historically, drugs were discovered by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery, as with penicillin. More recently, chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that had a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. After sequencing of the human genome allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has become common practice to use high throughput screening of large compounds libraries against isolated biological targets which are hypothesized to be disease‒modifying in a process known as reverse pharmacology. Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy. Depending on product type and development stage, investigators initially enrol volunteers or patients into small pilot studies, and subsequently conduct progressively larger scale comparative studies. Clinical trials can vary in size and cost, and they can involve a single research centre or multiple centres, in one country or in multiple countries. Clinical study design aims to ensure the scientific validity and reproducibility of the results. Costs for clinical trials can range into the billions of dollars per approved drug. The sponsor may be a governmental organization or a pharmac...
Sequencing Of The Human Genome Medical Device Company Contract Research Organization Approved Drug Classical Pharmacology Reverse Pharmacology Rapid Cloning Serendipitous Discovery Human Clinical Trials Multiple Countries
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Climate change Research Articles published between Jan 23, 2023 to Jan 29, 2023
Jan 30, 2023
Articles Included: 3
Climate change adaptation has shifted from a single-dimension to an integrative approach that aligns with vulnerability and resilience concepts. Adapt...Read More
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