The agricultural sector faces serious challenges related to climate change. These changes have the potential to reduce yields and food security, highlighting the importance of understanding and managing temperature dynamics. This work is the result of development a thermodynamic model that investigates the dynamics of temperature balance through heat energy transfer. A scheme of rheological heat exchange of an object with an insulated surface and graphs of irreversible rheological transformations are proposed. The main equation of heat exchange with a chemical reaction is given and the equation of the speed of heat energy transfer along the length of the object is derived. Further development of physical-mathematical models of the transformation of thermal energy into a set of states of the object is proposed. The experimental results fully correlate with the heat transfer equation. Samples with tomato seeds were irradiated with a photon irradiator with wavelengths of blue 450 nm, green 550 nm, red 650 nm with an exposure of 12/24 h. As a result, 90 % under the influence of the red spectrum of the photon irradiator for 24 h, which is 24 % more than the control sample. This will make it possible to assess the general temperature regime of agricultural objects and optimize the heating process. This study reveals the essence of temperature regulation at agricultural facilities using a thermodynamic model, which not only takes into account heat exchange, but also includes the influence of chemical reactions. The proposed thermodynamic model and associated equations provide a foundation for future research and practical applications that will ultimately benefit the agricultural industry, global food production

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