International Journal of Hematology
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Cryopreserved versus fresh peripheral blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation outcomes in patients receiving post-transplant cyclophosphamide for graft-versus-host prophylaxis during the COVID-19 pandemic: a single center experience

Publication Date Nov 15, 2022

Abstract

Cryopreservation of grafts is not common practice in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. However, our center had to use cryopreserved cells for allogeneic HSCT during the COVID-19 pandemic to avoid delays in transplantation due to uncertainty regarding patient and donor exposures. We retrospectively evaluated post-transplant engraftment and survival outcomes of adult patients who received cryopreserved versus fresh allografts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fifty-five patients with hematologic malignancies received either cryopreserved (n = 34) or fresh (n = 21) allogeneic HSCT using peripheral blood stem cells between January 2020 and December 2020. At a median follow-up time of 15months, cryopreserved allograft recipients had significantly lower overall survival (OS) (p = 0.02). They also experienced significantly delayed neutrophil (p = 0.01) and platelet engraftments (p < 0.0001), as well as higher red blood cell transfusion-dependence after day + 60 (67.6% vs. 28.6%; p = 0.01). Significantly more cryopreserved allograft recipients received donor lymphocyte infusion than fresh allograft recipients (35.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.01). Neither relapse-free survival nor non-relapse mortality differed significantly between the two groups. Cryopreservation of allografts in combination with post-transplant cyclophosphamide may negatively affect engraftment and OS outcomes in HSCT recipients.

Concepts

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Peripheral Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Outcomes Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Cryopreservation Of Allografts Cryopreservation Of Grafts Transplantation Outcomes In Patients Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

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