The lifetime of implantable electrochemical glucose monitoring devices is limited due to the foreign body response and detrimental effects from ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) interferents that are components of physiological media. Polymer coatings can be used to shield biosensors from these interferences and prolong their functional lifetime. This work explored several approaches to protect redox polymer-based glucose biosensors against such interferences by designing six targeted multi-layer sensor architectures. Biological interferents, like cells and proteins, and UA and AA interferents were found to have individual effects on the current density and operational stability of glucose biosensors, requiring individual protection and treatment. Protection against biofouling can be achieved using a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (MPC) zwitterionic polymer coating. An enzyme-scavenging approach was compared to electrostatic repulsion by negatively charged polymers for protection against AA and UA interferences. A multi-layer novel polymer design (PD) system consisting of a cross-linkable negatively charged polyvinylimidazole-polysulfostyrene co-polymer inner layer and a cross-linkable MPC zwitterionic polymer outer layer showed the best protection against AA, UA, and biological interferences. The sensor protected using the novel PD shield displayed the lowest mean absolute relative difference between the glucose reading without the interferent and the reading value with the interferent present and also displayed the lowest variability in sensor readings in complex media. For sensor measurements in artificial plasma, the novel PD extends the linear range (R2 = 0.99) of the sensor from 0-10 mM for the control to 0-20 mM, shows a smaller decrease in sensitivity, and retains high current densities. The application of PD multi-target coating improves sensor performance in complex media and shows promise for use in sensors operating in real conditions.

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