Decarbonization of the energy system is a key aspect of the energy transition. Energy storage in the form of chemical bonds has long been viewed as an optimal scheme for energy conversion. With advances in systems engineering, hydrogen has the potential to become a low cost, low emission, energy carrier. However, hydrogen is difficult to contain, it exhibits a low flammability limit (>40000 ppm or 4%), low ignition energy (0.02 mJ), and it is a short-lived climate forcer. Beyond commercially available sensors to ensure safety through spot checks in enclosed environments, new sensors are necessary to support the development of low emission infrastructure for production, transmission, storage, and end use. Efficient scalable broad area hydrogen monitoring motivates lowering the detection limit below that (10 ppm) of best in class commercial technologies. In this perspective, we evaluate recent advances in hydrogen gas sensing to highlight technologies that may find broad utility in the hydrogen sector. It is clear in the near term that a sensor technology suite is required to meet the variable constraints (e.g., power, size/weight, connectivity, cost) that characterize the breadth of the application space, ranging from industrial complexes to remote pipelines. This perspective is not intended to be another standard hydrogen sensor review, but rather provide a critical evaluation of technologies with detection limits preferably below 1 ppm and low power requirements. Given projections for rapid market growth, promising techniques will also be amenable to rapid development in technical readiness for commercial deployment. As such, methods that do not meet these requirements will not be considered in depth.

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