Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) belong to a family of porous organic materials that form 2D or 3D tuned structures via a covalent bond formation between organic blocks. COFs exhibit a remarkable array of characteristics that make them highly promising materials for various applications. COFs are characterized by their chemical and physical stability, their highly porous structure, and their easy structural tunability. They emerged as promising candidates for electrode materials in advanced energy storage devices such as sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). COFs can be precisely customized for each application via pore engineering and framework functionalization as well as the pre- and post-synthesis. Research has been conducted to examine the effect of various functional groups, active redox sites, pore size, and interlayer distances on the performance of COFs as electrode materials. Herein, this review reports the most recent advances in using COFs as electrode materials in both LIBs and SIBs. It also discusses the synthesis of COFs, structural engineering, and pore engineering. The main advantages and challenges that arise with the application of COFs in rechargeable batteries are presented. This review concluded that COFs do have the potential as anode materials in both LIBs and SIBs by virtue of their crystalline structure and high porosity that enable efficient ion diffusion and storage. COFs provided enhanced battery electrochemical performance, improved energy density, and prolonged cycle life.

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