Abstract

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by cytopenia, marrow dysplasia and has a propensity to develop into acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The disease progression is majorly affected by genetic defects. However, about 40% - 50% of patients with MDS present with a normal karyotype and develop different courses of disease. Hence there remains a room to advance the biological understanding and to find molecular prognostic markers for cytogenetically normal (CN) MDS. We performed a high-resolution CGH + SNP array along with NGS of 77 primary diagnosed MDS patients and also they were clinically followed up. Our study revealed 82 clinically significant genomic lesions (losses/gains) in 49% of MDS patients. CGH + SNP array reduced the proportion of normal karyotype by 30%. SNP array in combination with NGS confirmed the biallelic loss of function of the TP53 gene (2/6), which is a clinically relevant biomarker and new genetic-based MDS entity i.e. MDS-biTP53 as per the new WHO classification 2022. Genomic region 2p22.3 presented with frequent lesions and also with a more hazard ratio (2.7, 95% CI 0.37 - 21) when analyzed by Kaplan Meier survival analysis. CGH + SNP array changed the cytogenetic and IPSS-R risk group in 18% and 13% of patients respectively with an improved prediction of prognosis. This study emphasizes the cytogenetic heterogeneity of MDS and highlights that abnormality with chromosome 2 may have a diagnostic and prognostic impact.

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