Materials | VOL. 15

Comparative Analysis of Lead Removal from Liquid Copper by ICF and CCF Refining Technologies

Publication Date Oct 10, 2022


Innovative technologies require the use of materials that meet increasingly high requirements; one such requirement is the purity of metals. In the case of copper, this translates into a parameter related to electrical conductivity. Traditional metal refining technologies have some limitations that can be eliminated through the use of modern melting aggregates. Such solutions include vacuum induction furnaces, comprising an induction furnace with a cold crucible. As part of this work, the possibilities of refining copper and lead alloys were investigated. In addition, the research was carried out with the use of two induction vacuum aggregates, allowing us to compare their effectiveness. The tests were carried out in a pressure range of 10–1000 Pa and at temperatures of 1273–1473 K. The results obtained made it possible to determine the mass transport coefficient of lead from an alloy with copper, and to determine the share of resistance in individual stages of the process. For experiments conducted inside an induction crucible furnace, lowering the working pressure inside the furnace chamber from 1000 to 10 Pa while increasing the temperature from 1323 to 1473 K was accompanied by a drop in the lead concentration inside the alloy of 69 to 96%, compared to its initial mass. For experiments conducted inside a cold crucible furnace, approximate values of lead removal appeared for lower temperatures (1273 to 1323 K), confirming that the analyzed process happens faster in this aggregate.


Purity Of Metals Cold Crucible Crucible Furnace Liquid Copper Induction Furnace Initial Mass Drop In Concentration Cold Crucible Furnace Induction Crucible Furnace Vacuum Induction Furnaces

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