Bone Marrow Transplantation
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Comparable survival outcomes with haploidentical stem cell transplantation and unrelated bone marrow transplantation

Publication Date Sep 12, 2022

Abstract

We retrospectively compared outcomes of unrelated donor bone marrow transplant (UBMT) and HLA-haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy-haploPBSCT) using the Japanese registry data. Recipients of first HCT for acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes between 2012 and 2015 were included. The analyzed subjects comprised UBMT recipients with 8/8 matched HLA alleles (n = 1470), 7/8 matched alleles (n = 859), 6/8 matched alleles (n = 186), and recipients of PTCy-haploPBSCT (n = 133). In multivariate analyses with 8/8 matched UBMT as the reference, PTCy-haploPBSCT showed similar overall mortality, decreased risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM), increased risk of relapse, and decreased risk of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD. Adjusted probabilities for 8/8 matched UBMT, PTCy-haploPBSCT, and 7/8 and 6/8 matched UBMT groups at 2 years post-transplant were 61%, 60%, 58%, and 52% for overall survival, 23%, 28%, 21%, and 19% for relapse, and 20%, 7%, 24%, and 33% for NRM. PTCy-haploPBSCT was associated with remarkably low NRM, contributing to survival outcomes that were comparable to 8/8 matched UBMT. The higher relapse rate in the PTCy-haploPBSCT group might be associated with the higher proportion of high-risk patients. PTCy-haploPBSCT may be a viable alternative when HLA-matched related donors are not available.

Concepts

Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplant Unrelated Donor Bone Marrow Transplant HLA-haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Non-relapse Mortality Japanese Registry Data Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation HLA-matched Related Donors Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide Comparable Survival Outcomes

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