Construction and demolition waste (CDW) management and recycling practices are crucial for transitioning to a circular economy. The focus of this study was on the detailed characterisation of different CDWs (hollow brick (HB), red clay brick (RCB), roof tile (RT), concrete and glass) collected from seven different demolition sites in Turkey. The CDWs were characterised based on particle size distribution, chemical composition and crystalline nature. Pozzolanic activity was evaluated through compressive strength measurements of cement mortars made with 20% cement replacement by CDWs at 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that the clayey CDWs exhibited similar physical/chemical properties and crystalline structures. The compositions of the waste concretes varied significantly based on their original materials. All the CDWs satisfied the minimum strength activity index (SAI) for supplementary cementitious materials, with pozzolanic activity influenced by the fineness and silica + alumina contents. The average SAIs for the HB, RCB, RT, concrete and glass were, respectively, 84.5%, 86.3%, 83.4%, 80.7% and 75.8%. Clayey CDWs contributed to mechanical strength development, while the contribution of concretes was related to the hydration of unreacted cementitious particles. Glass exhibited the weakest pozzolanic activity due to its coarser particle size. Overall, the CDWs demonstrated suitable properties for use as supplementary cementitious materials in Portland cement based systems.

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