AIM: To explore the effect of orthokeratology (OK) fitting on retinal vessel density in low to moderate myopia adolescents by using optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: Children aged 10 to 14y with a cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction of −0.50 diopter (D) to −5.00 D and astigmatism with more than −1.50 D were recruited. The enrolled adolescents were divided into OK group and spectacle group. During regular follow-up, adolescents were measured respectively at pre-wear, 1, 3, and 6mo after treatment. The follow-up included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), axial length (AL), superficial capillary plexus density (SCPD), deep capillary plexus density (DCPD), central retinal thickness (CRT), foveal avascular zone area (FAZ-A), foveal avascular zone perimeter (FAZ-P) and foveal vessel density in a 300-µm-wide region around foveal avascular zone (FD-300). The collected data were analyzed using statistical methods. RESULTS: By one month, SCPD significantly increased in the fovea and superior retina, and DCPD significantly increased inferiorly in OK group compared to spectacle group (P<0.05). By three months, there were significant increases in SCPD in the fovea and inferior retina, and DCPD in the parafovea, superior, and inferior retina in OK group (P<0.05), while the increase in SCPD and DCPD in the fovea were observed by six months (P<0.05). The FD-300 significantly increased at every follow-up in OK group compared to spectacle group (P<0.05). No significant differences in the CRT, FAZ-A and FAZ-P and FD-300 were observed between two groups (P>0.05). OK group showed a significant improvement in UDVA after wearing OK, compared to spectacle group (P<0.01), while the AL did not show a significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Short-term OK worn can increase local retinal vessel density in adolescents with low-to-moderate myopia.

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