To identify perinatal factors in children born extremely preterm (EP) that were associated with motor impairment (MI) at 2 and 10 years of age and develop a predictive algorithm to estimate the risk of MI during childhood. Participants of the ELGAN Study were classified as: no MI, MI only at 2 years, MI only at 10 years, and MI at both 2 and 10 years, based on a standardized neurological examination at 2 and the Gross Motor Function Classification System at 10 years of age. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression was used to develop the final predictive model. Of the 849 study participants, 64 (7.5%) had a diagnosis of MI at both 2 and 10 years and 63 (7.4%) had a diagnosis of MI at one visit but not the other. Of 22 total risk factors queried, 4 variables most reliably and accurately predicted MI: gestational age, weight z-score growth trajectory during NICU stay, ventriculomegaly, and cerebral echolucency on head ultrasound. By selecting probability thresholds of 3.5% and 7.0% at ages 2 and 10, respectively, likelihood of developing MI can be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 71.2%/72.1% at age 2 and 70.7%/70.7% at age 10. In our cohort, the diagnosis of MI at 2 years did not always predict a diagnosis of MI at 10 years. Specific risk factors are predictive of MI and can estimate an individual infant's risk at NICU discharge of MI at age 10 years.

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