Fat deposition is one of the key factors affecting the economic development of pig husbandry. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression characteristics of caveolae-associated protein 3 (CAVIN3) and to elucidate its effect and mechanism on adipogenic differentiation of porcine preadipocytes. Cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, and oil red O staining were used to detect the effect of CAVIN3 on the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes. The results showed that CAVIN3 was expressed in various tissues, with higher expression in adipose tissue, differentially expressed during cell adipogenic differentiation, and mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. Functional studies showed that, after CAVIN3 interference in preadipocytes, the expression of adipogenic factors and the content of lipid droplets were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The results were reversed after CAVIN3 was overexpressed. The mechanism research showed that LY3214996 inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and further inhibited lipogenic factors expression. Overexpression of CAVIN3 attenuates the inhibitory effect of LY3214996 on ERK phosphorylation and attenuates its inhibitory effect on adipogenic differentiation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that CAVIN3 promotes the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes by promoting ERK phosphorylation. The present study can lay a theoretical foundation for further studying the molecular mechanism of porcine fat deposition.

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