AbstractAn extreme haze‐fog event occurred during October 20–22, 2013, in Harbin, Northeast China, which lasted for nearly 60 h with local visibility as low as 20 m. However, causes of the extreme haze‐fog formation remain unclear. Through the analysis of in situ data and objective weather circulation classification, it is revealed that high pollutant emissions from biomass burning played a very important role in the extreme event. Stable weather conditions under the circulation type 8 (CT8), marked by weak high‐pressure control, strong inversion (6.55°C), shallow boundary layer depth (<300 m), and high relative humidity (>90%), aided in the accumulation of pollutants and hygroscopic aerosol growth. All of these factors collectively contributed to the extreme haze‐fog formation. The insights derived from this study can improve the predictability of extreme haze‐fog events, and indicate that pollution emissions should be tightly controlled in the adverse meteorological circulation type in Northeast China.

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