Chapter 1: Brief Overview of Carbon on Earth 1. An unusual look at Earth's shells 2. Global carbon cycle 3. Fundamental equation of a cycle and carbon flows 4. Carbon in Fossil Fuels 5. Feedbacks in the carbon cycle Chapter 2: Earth's Volatile Beginnings 1. The Major Volatiles 2. Primordial Atmosphere-Ocean System 3. Carbon Dioxide 4. Summary and Speculations 5. An Early Biosphere Chapter 3: Heat Balance of the Atmosphere and Carbon Dioxide 1. Heat Sources at the Earth's Surface 2. Solar Heating and Radiation Balance 3. Greenhouse Effect 4. Temperature of a Prebiotic Atmosphere 5. CO2 and Climate Change Chapter 4: Mineralogy, Chemistry, and Reaction Kinetics of the Major Carbonate Phases 1. Carbonate Minerals 2. Calcites 3. Dolomite 4. Aragonite 5. Carbonate Dissolution and Precipitation Kinetics 6. Carbonate Precipitation and Dissolution in Marine Ecosystems 7. Some Geological Considerations Chapter 5: Carbon Dioxide in Natural Waters 1. Dissolution and Dissociation of CO2 in Water 2. CO2 Transfer from Atmosphere to Water 3. Calcite and Aragonite in Natural Waters 4. Degree of Saturation With Respect to Carbonate Minerals 5. CO2 Phases: Gas, Liquid, Hydrate, Ice 6. Air-Sea CO2 Exchange due to Carbonate and Organic Carbon Formation Chapter 6: Isotopic Fractionation of Carbon: Inorganic and Biological Processes 1. Isotopic species and their abundance 2. Isotopic concentration units and mixing 3. Fractionation in inorganic systems 4. Photosynthesis and plant physiological responses to CO2 5. Biological fractionationand 13C cycle 6. Long-term trends Chapter 7: Sedimentary Rock Record and Oceanic and Atmospheric Carbon 1. Geologic Time Scale and Sedimentary Record 2. The Beginnings of Sedimentary Cycling 3. Broad Patterns of Sediment Lithologies 4. Differential Cycling of the Sedimentary Mass and Carbonates 5. Sedimentary Carbonate System 6. Evaporites and Fluid Inclusions 7. Isotopic Trends 8. Summary of the Phanerozoic Rock Record in Terms of Ocean Composition Chapter 8: Weathering and Consumption of CO2 1. Weathering Source: Sedimentary and Crystalline Lithosphere 2. Dissolution at the Earth's Surface 3. Mineral-CO2 Reactions in Weathering 4. CO2 Consumption from Mineral-Precipitation Model 5. CO2 Consumption from Mineral-Dissolution Model 6. Environmental Acid Forcing Chapter 9: Carbon in the Oceanic Coastal Margin 1. The Global Coastal Zone 2. Carbon Cycle in the Coastal Ocean 3. Inorganic and Organic Carbon 4. Marine Calcifying Organisms and Ecosystems 5. Present and Future of Coastal Carbon System Chapter 10: Natural Global Carbon Cycle through Time 1. The Hadean to Archaean 2. The Archaean to Proterozoic 3. The Phanerozoic 4. Pleistocene to Holocene Environmental Change Chapter 11: The Carbon Cycle in the Anthropocene 1. Characteristics of the Anthropocene 2. Major Perturbations in the Carbon Cycle: 1850 to the Early 21st Century 3. Partitioning of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fluxes 4. The Fundamental Carbon Problem of the Future

Full Text

Published Version
Open DOI Link

Get access to 115M+ research papers

Discover from 40M+ Open access, 2M+ Pre-prints, 9.5M Topics and 32K+ Journals.

Sign Up Now! It's FREE

Talk to us

Join us for a 30 min session where you can share your feedback and ask us any queries you have

Schedule a call