Distinctive large-scale structures have been identified in the spatial distribution of optical galaxies up to redshift z ∼ 1. In the more distant universe, the relationship between the dust-obscured population of star-forming galaxies observed at millimetre wavelengths and the network of cosmic filaments of dark matter apparent in all cosmological hydrodynamical simulations is still under study. Using the NIKA2 dual-band millimetre camera, we mapped a field of ∼90 arcmin2 in the direction of the star GJ526 simultaneously in its 1.15-mm and 2.0-mm continuum wavebands to investigate the nature of the quasi-alignment of five sources found ten years earlier with the MAMBO camera at 1.2 mm. We find that these sources are not clumps of a circumstellar debris disc around this star as initially hypothesized. Rather, they must be dust-obscured star-forming galaxies, or sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs), in the distant background. The new NIKA2 map at 1.15 mm reveals a total of seven SMGs distributed in projection on the sky along a filament-like structure crossing the whole observed field. Furthermore, we show that the NIKA2 and supplemental Herschel photometric data are compatible with a model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources when a common redshift of 2.5 and typical values of the dust parameters for SMGs are adopted. Hence, we speculate that these SMGs might be located in a filament of the distant ‘cosmic web’. The length of this candidate cosmic filament crossing the whole map is at least 4 cMpc (comoving), and the separations between sources are between 0.25 cMpc and 1.25 cMpc at this redshift, in line with expectations from cosmological simulations. Nonetheless, further observations to determine the precise spectroscopic redshifts of these sources are required to definitively support this hypothesis of SMGs embedded in a cosmic filament of dark matter.

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