Despite the increasing scientific interest and expanding role of gut microbiota (GM) in human health, it is rarely reported in case reports and deployed in clinical practice. Proteins and metabolites produced by microbiota contribute to immune system development, energy homeostasis and digestion. Exo- and endogenous factors can alter its composition. Disturbance of microbiota, also known as dysbiosis, is associated with various pathological conditions. Specific bacterial taxa and related metabolites are involved in disease pathogenesis and therefore can serve as a diagnostic tool. GM could also be a useful prognostic factor by predicting future disease onset and preventing hospital-associated infections. Additionally, it can influence response to treatments, including those for cancers, by altering drug bioavailability. A thorough understanding of its function has permitted significant development in therapeutics, such as probiotics and fecal transplantation. Hence, GM should be considered as a ground-breaking biological parameter, and it is advisable to be investigated and reported in literature in a more consistent and systematic way.

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