We investigated birefringence-derived scleral artifacts in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of eyes with pathologic myopia. This study included 76 eyes of 42 patients with pathologic myopia. Five sets of OCT B-scan images of the macula were obtained using commercial swept-source OCT. A dataset of prototype swept-source polarization-diversity OCT images was used to identify polarization-dependent OCT images (i.e., complex averaging of OCT signals from two polarization channels) and polarization-independent OCT images (i.e., intensity averaging of two OCT signals). Polarization-dependent OCT images and commercial OCT images were assessed for the presence of birefringence-derived artifacts by comparison with polarization-independent OCT images. Both polarization-dependent OCT images and commercial OCT images contained scleral vessel artifacts. Scleral vessel artifacts were present in 46 of 76 eyes (60.5%) imaged by polarization-dependent OCT and 17 of 76 eyes (22.4%) imaged by commercial OCT. The proportion of images that showed scleral vessel artifacts was significantly greater among polarization-dependent OCT images than among commercial OCT images (P < 0.001). Additionally, polarization-dependent OCT images showed low-intensity band artifacts. This study demonstrated the existence of birefringence-derived scleral artifacts in commercial OCT images and indicated that polarization-diversity OCT is an effective tool to evaluate the presence of these artifacts.

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