Objective: Lumbar interbody fusion with cages is a commonly used surgical solution for spinal conditions that do not respond to conservative management. Biportal endoscopic trans-Kambin lumbar interbody fusion (BE-KLIF) is a modern technique that offers several benefits over prior techniques, including early ambulation, reduced postoperative pain, and shorter hospital stays.Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 128 patients who underwent BE-KLIF between March 2018 and August 2022. The primary indications for surgery were segmental lumbar listhetic instability, failed decompression with neuroforamen stenosis, adjacent segment disease, and burst fracture of the lumbar vertebrae. The outcome measures included Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, and postoperative fusion status at 1 year after the procedure was graded using the Bridwell fusion grading scale.Results: BE-KLIF yielded significant improvements in patient outcomes. Successful fusion was achieved in 91.8% of segments. The mean ODI score was significantly lower at the 1-year follow-up than before the procedure. Similarly, VAS scores for leg and back pain significantly improved after the procedure. Seven early and 3 late postoperative complications were observed. The mean length of hospital stay was shorter for BE-KLIF than for the older transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion technique.Conclusion: BE-KLIF resulted in less bone removal, preservation of the facet joint, facilitation of a more oblique trajectory, and potential for larger cages with wider effacements compared with prior techniques. However, the technique lacks central and contralateral decompression. We recommend performing same-side unilateral laminotomy with bilateral decompression to provide central and contralateral decompression.

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