Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal disease characterized by intestinal tract inflammation. Although the incidence of IBD is increasing globally, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain unclear. Numerous drugs have been recently used to treat the disease; however, they have several shortcomings, such as poor stability, poor solubility, and low biosafety. In recent years, research on biomaterials to address the challenges encountered in IBD treatment has increased and is extensive. Different types of biomaterials play different roles in IBD due to their unique characteristics, and different types of macromolecular preparations are applied according to their physical and chemical properties. In addition, biomaterial-based drug delivery systems are expected to overcome the limitations of traditional oral drug delivery, and offer novel opportunities for IBD treatment via oral drug administration. Intestinal organoids have also become a research hotspot in recent years in IBD studies, with key roles in IBD pathogenesis, drug screening. The present article reviews research and the roles of various biomaterials in IBD treatment to enhance our understanding of research trends in biomaterials in IBD in recent years and facilitate IBD treatment and further research.

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