The cleaning and physicochemical properties on tooth root biointerfaces are pivotal for periodontal healing. Herein, this work investigated the impact of multi-treatment on the physicochemical features of tooth root surfaces and the responsive behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). It was found that the combination of various mechanical treatments significantly affects the topographical pattern and size as well as wettability on tooth root surfaces. Furthermore, biological experiments revealed that hGF behaviors (i.e., cell adhesion, shape, spreading, arrangement, and viability) were regulated by the topography and wettability of tooth root surfaces. Also, there was no significant difference in the protein expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β in hGFs among tooth root surfaces under various treatments. This study provides new insights to efficiently remove the dental calculus and to understand the interaction between the tooth root interface and cell, which could guide the clinical operation and thereby is more conducive to periodontal recovery.

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