Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a fatal disease of global public health concern. Measures to reduce its spread critically depend on timely and accurate diagnosis of virus-infected individuals. Biobanks can have a pivotal role in elucidating disease etiology, translation, and advancing public health. In this article, we show how a biobank has been a critical resource in the rapid response to coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The Integrated Biorepository of H3Africa Uganda established a COVID-19 biobank. Standard Operating Procedures for sample and data collection, sample processing, and storage were developed. An e-questionnaire data tool was used to collect sociodemographic factors. Samples were collected at 7-day intervals from patients, analyzed for key parameters, processed, annotated, characterized, and stored at appropriate temperatures. Results: Stored samples have been used in validation of 17 diagnostic kits, the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay, as well as a sample pooling technique for mass screening and polymerase chain reaction assay validation. Kits that passed validation were deployed for mass screening boosting early detection, isolation, and treatment of COVID-19 cases. Also, 10 applications from researchers and biotech companies have been received and approved and 4 grants have been awarded Conclusion: The CoV-Bank has proven to be an invaluable resource in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda, as samples have been resources in the validation and development of COVID-19 diagnostic tools, which are important in tracing and isolation of infected cases to confront, delay, and stop the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

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