Abstract

The adverse effects of relying solely on synthetic pesticides have become increasingly evident, leading many countries to explore alternatives sourced from plant-based green economies. Essential oil (EO) from stems and leaves of Adenosma buchneroides Bonati (A. buchneroides) was distilled by using hydrodistillation and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for component identification. Subsequently, EO as well as its main constituents (thymol and p-cymene) were tested for their insecticidal activity against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), and the booklouse (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The joint action of thymol and p-cymene produced an additive or synergistic effect. A. buchneroides essential oil (BHO) and the fixed ratio of the main compounds, thymol, and p-cymene both showed significant toxic activity against the target pests. This toxic effect is not simply the sum of individual effects, as it is influenced by various factors such as insect species and mode of action. These findings imply that the BHO and its phytoconstituents possess great potential to develop plant-derived biopesticides that will be safe for humans and the environment.

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