The development of human potential, saving of the people, improvement of the population’s life quality and welfare are an urgent and important priority for ensuring the national security of any country in the world, including Russia, which is also reflected in the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation. These areas are generally interconnected; however, human potential development is the most important priority (according to the UN, it is the most important direction of socioeconomic development of the countries of the world). The main comparative indicator of human development is the human development index (HDI), which takes into account life expectancy at birth, ability to gain knowledge (average and expected duration of learning), ability to achieve a decent standard of living (gross national income per capita). The most important indicator is life expectancy at birth: how many years a person is expected to live in a particular country or region. All other indicators, for example, gross national (internal) product, cash incomes, etc., act as significant or insignificant factors that affect a person’s life expectancy, and therefore the level of human potential and the level of ensuring the country’s national security. The HDI divides countries (regions) into four groups: with a very high level of development (0.800 and higher), with a high level of development (0.700–0.799), with an average level of development (0.550–0.699), and with a low level of development (less than 0.550). The aim of the work was to justify the main methodological approaches to the study of human development as one of the main priorities of ensuring the national security of Russia. To achieve the aim, human potential was characterized as a concept, methods of determining critical meanings were proposed, and the state of human development and the ensuing of the national security of the Russian Federation were described in detail. As a proposal to ensure the national security of Russia, the authors note the following: life expectancy should be the main resulting indicator, while other indicators that may threaten the national (economic) security of Russia or its regions are also among possible indicators, which require separate studies.

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