Previous attempts have been made to characterize the atmospheres of directly imaged planets at low resolution (R ∼ 10–100 s), but the presence of clouds has often led to degeneracies in the retrieved atmospheric abundances with cloud opacity and temperature structure that bias retrieved compositions. In this study, we perform retrievals on the ultrayoung (≲5 Myr) directly imaged planet ROXs 42B b with both a downsampled low-resolution JHK-band spectrum from Gemini/NIFS and Keck/OSIRIS, and a high-resolution K-band spectrum from pre-upgrade Keck/NIRSPAO. Using the atmospheric retrieval framework of petitRADTRANS, we analyze both data sets individually and combined. We additionally fit for the stellar abundances and other physical properties of the host stars, a young M spectral type binary, using the SPHINX model grid. We find that the measured C/O, 0.50 ± 0.05, and metallicity, [Fe/H] = −0.67 ± 0.35, for ROXs 42B b from our high-resolution spectrum agree with those of its host stars within 1σ. The retrieved parameters from the high-resolution spectrum are also independent of our choice of cloud model. In contrast, the retrieved parameters from the low-resolution spectrum show strong degeneracies between the clouds and the retrieved metallicity and temperature structure. When we retrieve both data sets together, we find that these degeneracies are reduced but not eliminated, and the final results remain highly sensitive to cloud modeling choices. We conclude that high-resolution spectroscopy offers the most promising path for reliably determining atmospheric compositions of directly imaged companions independent of their cloud properties.

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